Dow vs Bhopal Toxic Rap Battle

Descriptions:

Indian rap artist Sofia Ashraf shot to fame with her first video about mercury pollution caused by Hindustan Unilever’s thermometer manufacturing unit at Kodaikanal. (Source: India Today 2016, np link)

Sofia Ashraf, whose earlier song ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ helped create awareness about mercury poisoning in the hill station,  is now using a music video to urge people to sign a petition by the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (ICJB). The video, called ‘DOW vs. Bhopal: A toxic rap battle’, has gone viral. (Source: Poorvaja 2016, np link)

Sofia Ashraf debuted “Dow vs. Bhopal: a Toxic Rap Battle” last month, calling the story of what happened in the central Indian city of Bhopal “a critical message to get out there.” The 1984 tragedy, considered the world’s worst industrial accident, was caused by 40 tons of deadly methyl isocynate gas leaking from a pesticide plant run by Union Carbide Corp. – later purchased by Dow Chemical. The leak killed more than 15,000 and sickened at least a half-million more. Activists say thousands of children have since been born with brain damage, missing palates and twisted limbs. (Source: Loop News 2016, np link)

The immediate death toll was 2,259.  The breakout caused 558 thousand injuries, 8000 more died in two weeks and an estimated 8000 more died of gas related complications. Sofia Ashraf is back at it again. After her fame with “Kodaikanal won’t” she’s rapping for justice for the Bhopal gas tragedy victims. (Source: socialmilk 2016, np link)

‘The fight ain’t done’, says Chennai-born rap artist Sofia Ashraf of the ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ fame, in her new video about the struggle of victims of the Bhopal gas Tragedy and fixing of blame in one of the world’s worst industrial disasters. Titled ‘Toxic Rap Battle: DOW Vs. Bhopal’, Ashraf’s video is an appeal to fix responsibility for the leak of around 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas from a pesticide factory owned by U.S. multinational Union Carbide Corp in the early hours of Dec. 3, 1984. The government had recorded 5,295 deaths. Activists estimate 25,000 deaths from illnesses since the leak. (Source: Chatterjee 2016, np link)

Titled Dow vs Bhopal: A toxic rap battle, the video has Ashraf going back and forth between the roles of ‘Dow’ and ‘Bhopal’, rapping each side’s arguments taking responsibility for the tragedy. “What’s all the fuss about? We bought UC, not its liabilities,” goes Dow’s side of the argument, while ‘Bhopal’ alleges that the compensation given to the victims is too meagre for the damage caused. (Source: Venkatraman 2016, np link)

Ashraf joined a group of activists and has also put up a petition on the White House website. Bhopal Gas Tragedy is one of the worst industrial disasters to have happened in India, the effects of which are still being felt. It exposed more than 5,00,000 people to methyl-isocyanate, killing many and causing deformities even in the third generation. In the video, Sofia Ashraf questions the US Department for defending Dow Chemicals that caused the poisonous leak from the Union Carbide Plant. Dow Chemicals bought Union Carbide in 2001, but never accepted responsibility of the disaster. (Source: Barclay 2016, np link)

Ashraf calls out the US government for being passive about the situation. The 1984, Bhopal Gas tragedy killed as many as 15,000 people and sickened over half a million. The poisonous gas leak has also affected the future generations with babies being born handicapped or born with brain damage and twisted limbs. Ashraf’s song stems from the fact that Dow Chemicals which bought over the company from Union Carbide in 2001 (the plant had been shut after the incident), is ignoring the damage caused by the 1984 incident and the still toxic impact of running it. She also calls out for compensation that Dow owes the families who were harmed during the leak. The video has Sofia Ashraf giving both versions of the story, The Dow version where the company refuses to take responsibility for something that hadn’t happened under their watch versus the people of Bhopal who continue to suffer the consequences. Ashraf urges the US government to push Dow to pay more in compensation and clean up. (Source: Desi Hip Hop 2016, np link)

Indian rapper #SofiaAshraf is targeting #DowChemical with rhymes – demanding the U.S. company pay more in victims’ compensation and environmental damages stemming from the world’s worst industrial accident in #Bhopal in 1984.. (Source: DW Group 2016, np link)

Her video, she hopes, will change that, with its provocative clips of dancers wearing gas masks, Prime Minister Narendra Modi orating, President Barack Obama donning sunglasses and presumptive Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump doused in water interspersed with images of hospital rooms and Ashraf herself rapping angrily at the camera. (Source: George 2016, np link)

The most striking visual of this video however, is the noose that is shown around Ashraf’s neck while she argues for the people of Bhopal, a metaphor for being refused justice for 32 years. (Source: Suresh 2016, np link)

The video ends with a request to the viewers to sign a petition to the United States government asking it to “serve notice upon Dow to attend court in Bhopal on July 13, 2016”. (Source: Archana 2016, np link)

Inspiration/process/technique/methodology:

On the night of December 2, an industrial negligence in Bhopal led to a release of 30 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC)gas, exposing nearly 5 lakh people in the city to the deadly gas. A state government report said the accident caused more than 3500 deaths. And more than 8,000 died till now. These were not the only causalities of the accident. Families of the dead and the maimed have died a thousand deaths for the last 31 years as government couldn’t bring the people responsible for the accident to justice. Last month, the former chairman of Union Carbide, Warren Anderson, the main accused of the tragedy, died after leading his whole life in freedom in the United States, leaving permanent questions on Indian system of justice.. Today more than 120,000 are suffering from chronic illness only because of that disastrous night.. Lets pray for the sufferers nd pray that no such incident happens further in any corner of this world. (Source: neha_malviya_  2015, np link)

I m posting this picture to mark the 31st anniversary of Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Rahman Khan a former Union Carbide employee (now Dow Chemicals) shows his identity card and remembered the world’s biggest industrial disaster on the intervening night of December 2-3 in central Indian city of Bhopal 31 years ago. It claimed more than 5000 lives, more than half a million people still suffer, the toxicity had been passed on the second and third generations. (Source: dtemagazing 2015, np link)

Today marks 31st year of Bhopal Gas Tragedy and it saddens me to think how its not ‘viral’ on internet. 31years ago, due to leakage in a storage container at Union Carbide Company located in Bhopal, India more than 10k people and cattle were killed within 72 hours. The consequences of the toxic gas release was such that people living in the area have constantly been under it’s effect, even after 3 decades: the water is still polluted in the affected areas; the babies born suffer painful deformities. (Source: thephotodiary 2015a, np link)

I read about the victims and saw some photographs. It is really saddening that something has happened at this scale and nobody is concerned about it. (Source: thephotodiary 2015b, np link)

“Speak to young people, and they know about Hiroshima and Nagasaki, they know about the Holocaust,” the 29-year-old songstress said in a recent interview with The Associated Press. “But very few of them will know about the Bhopal gas leak tragedy.” (Source: George 2016, np link)

The internet is an incredibly volatile medium, and rap is a means, and not an end, says Ashraf, adding that there is an entire generation which is growing up without even knowing the tragedy. (Source: Suresh 2016, np link)

“When you write your own content, you write stuff that you are passionate about. These are subjects that angers me a lot and that is how I wrote it. I wrote it in 2008 and there was a window of hope for this issue and that is why we were able to revive it,” said Sofia. (Source: Nath 2016, np link)

Ashraf has gone after Dow Chemicals before for the Bhopal disaster. Her 2008 song called “Don’t Work For Dow” urged engineering students to ignore company recruiters on college campuses. (Source: George 2016, np link)

The song itself is part of a 2008 campaign which was aimed at engineering graduates, urging them not to go work for Dow Chemicals. “That song was my first step into ‘raptivism’. It was just a cover I had done. Since we had such a short time, we thought we could just repurpose it into a completely new song,” said Ashraf. (Source: Venkatraman 2016, np link)

Ashraf wrote the song eight years ago, when she was known as the burkha rapper (“I was strongly religious back then”) in Chennai. As a student, she would rap at college festivals. She also performed at Justice Rocks, an initiative that invites youngsters to express themselves on issues that matter. “I wrote it along with another song about Islamophobia for that show. Eight years later, these two issues are still relevant,” she says. The song’s format is that of a rap battle; with Ashraf representing America and the people of Bhopal in different avatars. “I had a lot of data. But I needed to find a way to present it to people. So I felt a dramatised debate would be the best way to do it,” she says. (Source: Shah 2016, np link)

The global success of Kodaikanal Won’t, which highlighted the alleged mercury contamination in Kodaikanal by Hindustan Unilever’s thermometer factory and has more than 3.8 million views on YouTube till date, might have given the ICJB the idea, said Ashraf.  (Source: Venkatraman 2016, np link)

The video was put together within a week, said Ashraf, after a petition to the White House was not gathering enough signatures within the specified time of 30 days. “The International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (ICJB), who started the petition approached me after they realised the petition wasn’t moving fast enough. We had a small window of opportunity, so we had to move fast,” she said. (Source: Venkatraman 2016, np link)

“I never thought of being an activist,” says Ashraf in a telephonic interview from Chennai. “I had written the song as part of the Justice Rock concerts that I used to participate in every year. I used to work in an advertising agency at that time but I quit after a while and am now a content producer.” “The song was originally written for Justice Rock in 2008 where I performed it with Ajay Maniraj. When I came to know of this petition I rehashed the song and made a new video for it to help gather the votes needed to get the petition into action,” says Ashraf. (Source: Mukherjee 2016, np link)

The music for the video is by the electro band Area Dwgz, which had also collaborated with composer Santosh Narayanan for the upcoming Rajinikanth film Kabali. (Source: Venkatraman 2016, np link)

Discussion/responses:

Some seriously shitty music right here (Source: Cassidy Jones 2016, np link)

Song name ? (Source: Commander Pinkman 2016, np link)

Amazingggg!!! (Source: Akihdar Sinbas 2015, np link)

(Y) (Source: Julietik Fly 2015, np link)

Damn!!! (Source: Sasanka Avadhanula 2015, np link)

amazing (Source: kinrash 2015, np link)

Why does this guy tries to fake his accent? Cant even understand a word without subtitles. The shittiest rap every heard till date. Normal accents would have been much more powerful. (Source: Soumya Deep Chatterjee 2015, np link)

You’re a pretty shit person too for calling it a shitty rap. Especially when we’ve heard far shittier ones written for the sole purpose of earning money, whereas this- which was not shitty at all- was written for free for an important cause.  (Source: Sahil Wajid 2015, np link)

wow (Source: undefeatedsita 2015, np link)

The Stages of Sofia. (Source: Chattopadhyay 2013, np link)

This is just fantastic! We hope you guys come up with more in the days to come! Keep up the great work Sofia and Ajay! Loved it!  (Source: Aishwayra 2013, np link)

@Philosofie – i think this is ur best act….what say? (Source: Shahir Muneer 2011, np link)

Fuck yes (Source: Tae Won Yu 2009, np link)

thats hot sophie …all the best never seen a girl do that amazing (Source: Phani Kumar 2009, np link)

Hey superbbbbb …. (Source: Vinoth Kanna 2009, np link)

Awesome! (Source: Sophia Spring 2009, np link)

IT SURE DOES! glad yu liked our act btw *blush blush* (Source: Sofia Ashraf 2009, np link)

Rappers of the World, eat your hearts out! Justice reaaaaaally rocks. ~ Somu (Source: Adivasi 2009, np link)

Try to give an annotation for the link in the end. It will help you. Great work. All the best (y) (Source: Tushar Kharayat 2016, np link)

Hi. Thanks for the suggestion. Added it now. (Source: Sofia Ashraf 2016, np link)

Weirdest cr*p music I heard in a while. I support the cause though. Signing the petition. (Source: Mithilesh Kuncham 2016, np link)

let’s hear u win a grammy, champ! (Source: Narayani Anand 2016, np link)

I tried to signed your petition, but I can’t. Is there something I can do to be able to sign it online? The first I have heard about your music was yesterday, and I think that you are great, it’s hard to be an musician and a politic at the same time, I enjoyed the video clip, it’s very special, thanks for the subtitles, it’s easier to understand. I will watch the rest of your rap songs. Thank you for sharing. (Source: Elisabeth Lacoeur 2016, np link)

owner of D.O.W is one in the rotschild family , they be tripping balls on some illuminati shit 😀 (Source: Ganesh Sg 2016a, np link)

you look so anorexic 😀 . dont starve yourself ,honey 🙂 (Source: Ganesh Sg 2016b, np link)

Rap wasn’t engaging like the last one. But I got your message and will support the cause. Great job Sofia! 🙂 (Source: Spandana v 2016, np link)

Wow,,still some people like u survives in this country ..HATS OFF..but money will matters to all in this world (Source: Senthil Kumar 2016, np link)

Brilliant stuff, thank you Sofia!! (Source: The Bhopal Medical Appeal 2016, np link)

Copy cat (Source: Harab Muhammed 2016, np link)

Absolutely brilliant!! Signed it. (Source: Neelam Yadav 2016, np link)

Umm.. Another ‘CTA’… “Sofia.. Rap wasn’t as good as d last one but.. it served d purpose.. I support the cause u r fighting for.. Or we r Fighting for.. Good work…A lot more to do.. All The Best.. (Source: Chandam Kumar 2016, np link)

Signed it n Thank you..!!! (Source: Sippy Panchal 2016, np link)

Thanks a lot di! Bhopal will be always with you! Thanks a mega ton! (Source: Yash Dixit 2016, np link)

GREAT!!!!! (Source: Mawana Afrobeat 2016, np link)

Nice (Source: Ritesh Kumar 2016, np link)

all the best for your battle Sofia ashraf…..hope justice comes to Bhopal….. (Source: Santosh Kumar 2016, np link)

Good video and supporting the cause…still the music is not so up… but all the best.. (Y) (Source: Seriously Am-i-Naughty 2016, np link)

great work #liked subscribe me… 🙂 (Source: Sreyas_TeCHs 2016, np link)

Keep fighting (Source: Chomm p 2016, np link)

You are my inspiration. This video gave me goosebumps. (Source: Aditi Khandelwal 2016, np link)

saw the hindu newspaper.saw this video.signed the petition.did something good today. 🙂 (Source: ankith adam 2016, np link)

nyc wrk guys…really an eye opener to the issue…this will motivate us to stand up against wronng do-ers. (Source: Vipin Das 2016, np link)

nice one (Source: Piyush Raikwar 2016, np link)

no oml (Source: Addison Hamilton 2016, np link)

tough and real…good job (Source: Rohan Sharma 2016, np link)

nice one ✌ peace (Source: KULT NINJA 2016, np link)

Signed it. (Source: jeevan siva 2016, np link)

Hey! Awesome rap! I really liked it! Can I share this video on Twitter? Caus it’s amazing and I really wanna help your cause ( even if just few persons will sign it..) (Source: Mi F 2016, np link)

thank you for this video… (Source: Sandy Rowland 2016, np link)

Best rap in the wolrd Sister 😀 (Source: MD Shahidul 2016, np link)

sofia great work….even I’m a rapper and I think u should do some cover videos and lets co-lab (Source: isha chic 2016, np link)

what language are u sing … hope so its not English RIP ENGLISH …. (Source: Aditya rulzz 2016, np link)

Dow chemicals got the favouritism and favour of then government…..otherwise, today, it would have been different story for their liability….. (Source: Rayeen 2016, np link)

They already had been made accountable. The rapper is short of knowledge. (Source: Shib 2016, np link)

Hope justice is achieved… Every one involved in safety projects throughout the world know the real seriousness. The incident is acknowledged by all safety experts throughout the circle as the most disastrous… why is it that law and justice is blind to it… (Source: Vijayan 2016, np link)

Safety norms and rules are strictly followed by western nations and especially by US. But Indian lives are cheap for them and hence the company had not spent a penny to improve safety . Hence the tragedy. No successive Governments at centre and MP had not taken up seriously and it is futile to expect any JUSTICE at all. (Source: Venkataraman 2016, np link)

Get over it…”Union Carbide paid $470 million in a 1989 deal reached with the Indian government” – it is over – Dow did not buy liability – the case was settled over a decade before Dow came into the picture. Maybe the Indian government should step up and help its people if money will solve their issues. (Source: Paul 2016, np link)

Why not we first investigate and identify the culprits (of course Rajive Gandi was involved in in) who let the DOW chairman flee the country.

Shouldn’t this what be the first step in giving justice to Bhopal and the nation?

If we ourselves don’t punish the culprits who are living in our country lavishly, how can we expect other countries greedy politicians to bring us justice?

Oh may be BJP politicians too are equally involved in this incident and the following funding which have been eaten away by the politicians and bureaucrats? (Source: Londoner 2016, np link)

It is surprising, no organisation has come forward so far to investigate whether the Bhopal tragedy was not a experiment in poison gas warfare of the US government. (Source: Chellam 2016, np link)

Really f*in disgusting.All those deaths and injuries and they hide behind a regulation meant to protect the oppressor. They have ducked issues before, but this is the most blatant. (Source: Momcat, 2016, np link)

This was years ago…What has happened to re-open the discussion? (Source: Peterson, 2016, np link)

How can they hold Dow responsible when they didn’t even come into the picture until they acquired Union Carbide in 2001? (Source, Lilycate, 2016, np link)

So, not being unsympathetic, but isn’t this an Indian justice system issue? Why would people be petitioning the White House? There is still a facility located there, and it is not owned by Dow Chemical. An India based company has operated, from the beginning, and now fully owns this facility since 1994.

“The design, engineering and construction of the Bhopal plant was a UCIL project from beginning to end. The Bhopal plant was designed, built, owned and operated by UCIL, an Indian company in which UCC held just over half of the stock. Indian financial institutions and thousands of private investors in India held the rest of the stock. In 1994, UCC sold its entire interest in UCIL to Mcleod Russel India Limited, which renamed the company Eveready Industries India Limited (EIIL). In 1998, the MPSG, which owns and had been leasing the property to EIIL, took over the facility and assumed all accountability for the site, including the completion of any additional remediation.” (Source: disqus_m19tZJbgvr, 2016, np link)

Impacts/outcomes:

“Collaborating with Sofia was something they were enthusiastic about given the response and buzz that the ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ video managed to generate,” said Rachna Dhingra, a coordinator for ICJB in Bhopal. “Through the rap video, we were able to get word out about the issue and how it still is affecting a large number of people in Bhopal, to a new generation who weren’t aware of what had happened,” she added. (Source: Poorvaja 2016, np link)

Her 2015 rap video Kodaikanal Won’t took aim at Unilever, calling on the company to help former workers at a thermometer plant in the Tamil Nadu hill resort of Kodaikanal. Unilever’s Indian subsidiary closed the plant 15 years ago after mercury contamination was discovered there. (Source: AP 2016, np link)

The White House petition, which closed on June 14, has already surpasses the required one lakh signatures. It currently has 121,045 signatories to it. As per terms of the White House website, the U.S. government has to respond to the petition within 60 days. When the video was released, the petition needed 90,000 signatures in two weeks. (Source: Venkatraman 2016, np link)

A petition has been filed on the White House website, and received more than 100,000 signatures, urging the U.S. government to hold Dow Chemical Co. accountable for the 1984 Bhopal gas leak.The petition has crossed the threshold of 100K signatures, making it mandatory for the White House to respond.Titled ‘Uphold International Law! Stop Shielding Dow Chemical from Accountability for Corporate Crimes in Bhopal, India’, the petition, dated 15 May, says that the more than three decades of protection to Union Carbide (UCC), which is now owned by Dow Chemicals, must end. The petition was filed last month, the full text of which can be read below:                                                 

In 1984 a factory majority-owned by Union Carbide (UCC, a U.S. corporation) leaked toxic gas in Bhopal, India, killing 8K-10K people instantly & maiming 500K more. India charged UCC with manslaughter, but UCC refused to show for trial. Dow Chemical bought UCC in 2001 but has not made UCC available to face charges. Under a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, India sent 4 notices to the US Dept. of Justice to summon Dow to explain UCC’s whereabouts. The DoJ has ignored or obstructed every notice. The same DoJ made BP pay $4 billion in criminal fines and penalties for Deepwater Horizon. 31 years of US protection of UCC and Dow must end. We insist that the US govt. meet its obligations under Treaty & international law by immediately serving notice upon Dow to attend court in Bhopal on July 13, 2016.

(Source: Barclay 2016, np link)

While many of the signatures were secured through people who spotted the petition online, and shared it on social media, a large chunk came with the help of volunteers in Bhopal who spoke to survivors and got them to sign. (Source: Poorvaja 2016, np link)

The petition has crossed the threshold of one lakh signatures, making it mandatory for the White House to respond (Source: All India 2016, np link)

Thank you for using the We the People platform to make your voice heard on this petition. As our Terms of Participation explain, to “avoid the appearance of improper influence, the White House may decline to address certain procurement, law enforcement, adjudicatory, or similar matters properly within the jurisdiction of federal departments or agencies, federal courts, or state and local government.” That’s why we’re declining to comment on the specific request raised in this petition. That being said, we’d like to note that during Prime Minister Modi’s last visit to the U.S. in June 2016, the President and Prime Minister made important strides together to advance a strategic partnership on energy security, clean energy, and climate change and reaffirmed our two countries’ cooperation on environmental stewardship. (Source: We the People 2016, np link)

The White House has declined to intervene in an online petition, signed by more than 1.27 lakh people, most of them from Bhopal, asking the United States Department of Justice (DoJ) to serve a legal notice to Dow Chemicals in connection with the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy…Members of four organisations burnt an effigy of US president Barack Obama on Saturday and said they would protest outside US consulates in India. Activists said there was a documentary evidence of the US government having used undue influence to set up the plant in Bhopal and to protect its then chairman Warren Anderson from criminal proceedings…The petition uploaded on the White House website argued that the DoJ did not summon Dow Chemical to explain the whereabouts of Union Carbide Corporation (UCC), the main accused in the gas tragedy trial pending in Indian courts. The UCC never showed up for trial and the four notices served by Indian courts through DoJ were never served on the company. (Source: Ghatwai 2016: np link)

Two months later, the White House did respond to the petition. Served in a hyphae of words tactfully dipped in discretion & garnished with a blatant disregard…From Kodaikanal to Bhopal, Mettur to Singrauli, justice lies at way further point than mere acknowledgment, remediation or rehabilitation from the state, central government or the company responsible. Well, somewhere amidst the blaring slogans and the heat of the burning effigies of Obama in a city vested in the heart of India, you’d see wrinkled faces. You’d see tired, cracked feet and countless children with a fainter idea of what has dawned upon them. “Justice buried, justice denied” seems more like a universal phenomenon for victims worldwide. Survivors, more than often in indigence, have come to terms with one fact, though; you wouldn’t see an Indian executive, if at all, who managed to flee from the USA under charges of culpable homicide or more, sunbathing peacefully in Goa. I guess we all know why, and it’s high time things change. (Source: Bhattacharya 2016, np link)

“India charged UCC with manslaughter, but UCC refused to show for trial. Dow Chemical bought UCC in 2001 but has not made UCC available to face charges,” the petition said. “Under a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, India sent four notices to the US Department of Justice to summon Dow to explain UCC’s whereabouts. The DoJ has ignored or obstructed every notice. The same DoJ made BP pay USD 4 billion in criminal fines and penalties for Deepwater Horizon. 31 years of US protection of UCC and Dow must end,” the petition said. (Source: All India 2016, np link)

Next, she plans to release a “more prolific yet fun” sequel to the Kodaikanal issue, regarding the clean-up. She is also working on spoken word pieces about domestic abuse, gender issues, and the identity of the modern Indian women. But what she is most excited about are her comic sketches and spoof songs. “I don’t believe that every song has to have a message. I am actually quite a comical character. [That’s] an avatar of mine that those close to me know well,” she says. (Source: Shah 2016, np link)

References:

Addison Hamilton (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Aditi Khandelwal (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Aditya rulzz (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

adivasi (2009) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Akihdar Sinbas (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

All India (2016) Petition Calls on White House To Hold Dow Accountable For Bhopal Leak, NDTV, 13th June, accessed on 20th October 2016, <http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/petition-calls-on-white-house-to-hold-dow-accountable-for-bhopal-leak-1418299>

ankith adam (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

AP (2016) ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ rapper’s new song targets Dow Chemicals, The Indian Express, 10th July, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/kodaikanal-wont-rappers-new-song-targets-dow-chemicals-2904414/>

Archana, K.C. (2016) After Kodaikanal won’t, Sofia Ashrad raps for Bhopal gas tragedy victims, India Today, June 10th, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/sofia-ashraf-raps-for-bhopal-gas-tragedy-victims/1/688956.html>

Barclay, D. (2016) Petition to Hold Dow Chemical Accountable for the 1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy, Diya TV, 13th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.diyatvusa.com/2016/06/13/petition-to-hold-dow-chemical-accountable-for-the-1984-bhopal-gas-tragedy/>

Bhattacharya, K. (2016) How The White House Responded To A Petition For The Victims Of The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, Youth Ki Awaaz, 2nd September, accessed on 20th October 2016, <http://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2016/09/bhopal-gas-tragedy-white-house-petition-response/>

Burning effigy of Barack Obama as part of protests outside US consulates in India after the US Government refused to act following online petition (2016) ICJB Press Release, 13th October, accessed on 20th October 2016, <http://www.bhopal.net/tag/2016-white-house-petition-campaign/&gt;

Cassidy Jones (2016) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Chandan Kumar (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Chatterjee, R. (2016) Fight Ain’t Done, Says Rap Artist Sofia Ashraf in ‘DOW Vs Bhopal Toxic Rap Battle’, Huffington Post, 15th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2016/06/15/fight-aint-done-says-rap-artist-sofia-ashraf-in-dow-vs-bhopal/>

Chellam (2016) Comment on Ghatwai, M. (2016) Bhopal gas tragedy: White House refuses to act on online petition, The Indian Express, 14th August, accessed on 20th October 2016, <http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/bhopal-gas-tragedy-white-house-refuses-to-act-on-online-petition/>

Chomm p (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Commander Pinkman (2016) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Desi Hip Hop (2016) Toxic Rap Battle Video Brings Gas Tragedy Back Into Limelight, Desi Hip Hop, 20th July, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://desihiphop.com/toxic-rap-battle-video-brings-gas-tragedy-back-into-limelight/321724>

disqus_m19tZJbgvr (2016) Comment on Andy Szal (2016) Thousands Petition White House to Hold Dow Accountable for Bhopal, ChemInfo, accessed on 20th October 2016, < http://www.chem.info/news/2016/06/thousands-petition-white-house-hold-dow-accountable-bhopal)

dtemagazing (2015) I m posting this picture to mark the 31st anniversary of Bhopal Gas Tragedy…,instagram.com, 3rd December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.instagram.com/p/-0W7r_neUt/>

DW Group (2016) Facebook post, Facebook.com, 11th July, accessed on 12th October 2016, <https://www.facebook.com/dw.globalideas/?ref=nf>

Elisabeth Lacoeur (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Ganesh Sg (2016a) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Ganesh Sg (2016b) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Ghatwai, M. (2016) Bhopal gas tragedy: White House refuses to act on online petition, The Indian Express, 14th August, accessed on 20th October 2016, <http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/bhopal-gas-tragedy-white-house-refuses-to-act-on-online-petition/>

George, N. (2016) Indian rapper targets US chemical giant in bid for damages, The Big Story, 10th July, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://bigstory.ap.org/1d0bcdd4d79742ba8e6606ac1c7dd9b6&utm_source=android_app&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=share>

Harab Muhammed (2016b) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

India Today (2016) Facebook post, Facebook.com, 10th June, accessed on 13th October 2016, <https://www.facebook.com/IndiaToday/?ref=nf>

isha chic (2016b) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

jeevan siva (2016b) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Jhatkaa (2015) About Jhatkaa, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://jhatkaa.org/>

Julietik Fly (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

kinrash (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

KULT NINJA (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Londoner (2016) Comment on Ghatwai, M. (2016) Bhopal gas tragedy: White House refuses to act on online petition, The Indian Express, 14th August, accessed on 20th October 2016, <http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/bhopal-gas-tragedy-white-house-refuses-to-act-on-online-petition/>

Lilycate (2016) Comment on Andy Szal (2016) Thousands Petition White House to Hold Dow Accountable for Bhopal, ChemInfo, accessed on 20th October 2016, < http://www.chem.info/news/2016/06/thousands-petition-white-house-hold-dow-accountable-bhopal)

Loop News (2016) DOW vs. Bhopal: a Toxic Rap Battle, Loop News, 10th July, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.looptt.com/tags/dow-vs-bhopal-toxic-rap-battle>

Mawana Afrobeat (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

MD Shahidul (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Mi F (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Mithilesh Kuncham (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Mom Cat (2016) Comment on Mom Cat (2016) White House Response to the Bhopal petition, JackPineRadicals, accessed on 20th   October 2016, <http://jackpineradicals.com/boards/topic/white-house-response-to-the-bhopal-petition/>

Mukherjee, S. (2016) Chennai’s Burqa Rapper, Sofia Ashraf Is Back, Singing To Get Attention For Bhopal Gas Tragedy, India Times, 9th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.indiatimes.com/culture/who-we-are/chennai-s-burqa-rapper-sofia-ashraf-is-back-singing-to-get-attention-for-bhopal-gas-tragedy-256367.html>

Narayani Anand (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Nath, A. (2016) Rapper Sofia Ashraf’s new song knocks the White House door for Bhopal gas tragedy victims, India Today, 16th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/rapper-sofia-ashraf-new-song-knocks-the-white-house-door-for-bhopal-gas-tragedy-victims/1/693737.html>

Neelam Yadav (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

neha_malviya_ (2015) On the night of December 2, an industrial negligence in Bhopal led to a release of 30 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC)gas, exposing nearly 5 lakh people in the city to the deadly gas…, instagram.com, 3rd December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.instagram.com/p/-0Tu6eRTfP/?taken-by=neha_malviya>

Paul (2016) Comment on AP (2016) ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ rapper’s new song targets Dow Chemicals, The Indian Express, 10th July, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/kodaikanal-wont-rappers-new-song-targets-dow-chemicals-2904414/>

Piyush Raikwar (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Phani Kumar (2009) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Poorvaja, S. (2016) After Kodaikanal, viral rapper moves to Bhopal, The Hindu, 16th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/after-kodaikanal-viral-rapper-moves-to-bhopal/article8733463.ece>

Randy Peterson (2016) Comment on Andy Szal (2016) Thousands Petition White House to Hold Dow Accountable for Bhopal, ChemInfo, accessed on 20th October 2016, < http://www.chem.info/news/2016/06/thousands-petition-white-house-hold-dow-accountable-bhopal)

Rayeen, M. S. (2016) Facebook comment, Facebook.com, 14th June, accessed on 18th October 2016, <https://www.facebook.com/thehindu/?hc_ref=SEARCH&fref=nf>

Ritesh Kumar (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Rohan Sharma (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Sahil Wajid (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Sandy Rowley (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Santosh Kumar (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

sasanka avadhanula (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Senthil Kumar (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Seriously Am-i-Naughty (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Shah, M. (2016) Rapper Sofia Ashraf is back with a song about the Bhopal gas tragedy, Hindustan Times, 8th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.hindustantimes.com/more-lifestyle/rapper-sofia-ashraf-is-back-with-a-song-about-the-bhopal-gas-tragedy/story-5XzqKrr00Qm9YbKF5odVaO.html>

Shahir Muneer (2011) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Shib, M. (2016) Facebook comment, Facebook.com, 14th June, accessed on 18th October 2016, <https://www.facebook.com/thehindu/?hc_ref=SEARCH&fref=nf>

Sippy Panchal (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

socialmilk (2016) DOW vs Bhopal A toxic rap battle, socialmilk, 3rd June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://socialmilk.in/dow-vs-bhopal-a-toxic-rap-battle/>

Sofia Ashraf (2009) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Sofia Ashraf (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Sophia Spring (2009) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Sumanto Chattopadhyay (2013) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

SOUMYA DEEP CHATTERJEE (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Spandana v (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Sreyas_TeCHs (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Suresh, H. (2016) Watch: After ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ Sofia Ashraf raps for victims of Bhopal, First Post, 5th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.firstpost.com/living/watch-after-kodaikanal-wont-sofia-ashraf-raps-for-victims-of-bhopal-gas-tragedy-2816276.html>

Tae Won Yu (2009) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

The Bhopal Medical Appeal (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

thephotodiary (2015a) Hey everyone! I had to be back briefly on Instagram to talk about this. Today marks 31st year of Bhopal Gas Tragedy and it saddens me to think how its not ‘viral’ on internet…, instagram.com, 3rd December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.instagram.com/p/-1ihL7LxC4/>

thephotodiary (2015b) Comment on thephotodiary (2015a)Hey everyone! I had to be back briefly on Instagram to talk about this. Today marks 31st year of Bhopal Gas Tragedy and it saddens me to think how its not ‘viral’ on internet…, instagram.com, 3rd December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.instagram.com/p/-1ihL7LxC4/>

Tushar Kharayat (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

undefeatedsita (2015) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Venkatraman, J. (2016) Dow vs Bhopal rap video brings gas tragedy back into limelight, 15th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/dow-vs-bhopal-rap-video-brings-gas-tragedy-back-into-limelight/article8728956.ece>

Vijayan (2016) Comment on Venkatraman (2016) Dow vs Bhopal rap video brings gas tragedy back into limelight, The Hindu, 15th June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/dow-vs-bhopal-rap-video-brings-gas-tragedy-back-into-limelight/article8728956.ece>

Vinoth Kanna (2009) Comment on Bala Kailasam (2008) Justice Rocks – 02, youtube.com, 16th December, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r30AMIVxj9Y>

Vipin Das (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

We the People (2016) Uphold International Law! Stop Shielding Dow Chemical from Accountability for Corporate Crimes in Bhopal, India, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://petitions.whitehouse.gov//petition/uphold-international-law-stop-shielding-dow-chemical-accountability-corporate-crimes-bhopal-india>

Yash Dixit (2016) Comment on Sofia Ashraf (2016) DOW Vs. Bhopal | A Toxic Rap Battle, youtube.com, 1st June, accessed on 19th October 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZTld8_fVyg>

Advertisements

One thought on “Dow vs Bhopal Toxic Rap Battle

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s